Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/adminjbpr/nlm.jpg" width="219" height="144">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/adminjbpr/www.jbpr_.in_.jpg">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/adminjbpr/DOI.png" width="221" height="144"></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;<a title="|| Pub-Med NLM ID (URL) ||" href="" target="_blank" rel="alternate noopener noreferrer">|| Pub-Med NLM ID (URL) ||</a>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="alternate noopener noreferrer">|| Index Copernicus (URL) ||</a>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="alternate noopener noreferrer">||</a><strong>CrossRef DOI: 10.22270/<a href="" target="_blank" rel="alternate noopener noreferrer">||</a></strong></p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><span style="text-align: justify;">Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research (JBPR) is an international, peer-reviewed, open access, online journal dedicated to the rapid publication of full-length original research papers, short communications, invited reviews, Case studies and editorial commentary and news, Opinions &amp; Perspectives and Book Reviews written at the invitation of the Editor in all areas of the Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences.</span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Medical || Dentistry || Biomedical Sciences&nbsp;|| Ayurveda&nbsp;|| Homeopathy&nbsp;||&nbsp;</strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Cell biology, Genetics, Hematology, Pathology, Immunology, Microbiology, Virology, Parasitology, Surgery, Dental Sciences, Sports Physiology,&nbsp;Histopathology, Toxicology and all major disciplines of Biomedical Sciences.<br> <strong>Pharmaceutical Sciences || Allied Sciences&nbsp;</strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Pharmaceutics, Biopharmaceutics, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmaceutical/Medicinal Chemistry, Computational Chemistry and Molecular Drug Design, Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Clinical Research, Pharmacy Practice, Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy, Cell Biology, Genomics and Proteomics, Pharmacogenomics, Bioinformatics and Biotechnology and all major disciplines of Pharmaceutical&nbsp; Sciences.</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Articles are published as they are accepted and are freely available on the journal’s website to facilitate rapid and broad dissemination of research findings to a global audience.</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Top Reasons for publication with us</strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Quick Quality Review:</strong> The journal has strong international team of editors and reviewers, Rapid Decision and Publication</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Very Low Publication Fees:</strong> Comparable journals charge a huge sum for each accepted manuscript. JPBR only charge the fees necessary to recoup cost associated with running the journal</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Other features:</strong> DIDS Assigned and Implemented the Open Review System (ORS).</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Important Notice:</strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Author can now directly send their manuscript as an email attachment to</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Innovative Library</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong></strong>, <strong></strong></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Innovative Library en-US Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research 2279-0594 <p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons License" width="60" height="21" border="0"></a><span style="line-height: 1.3em;">Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research&nbsp;</span><span style="line-height: 1.3em;">by </span><span style="line-height: 1.3em;">Articles</span><span style="line-height: 1.3em;"> is licensed under a </span><a style="line-height: 1.3em;" title="Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research" href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a><span style="line-height: 1.3em;">.</span></p> Formulation and In-vitro Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablet of Eprosartan Mesylate <p>In the present work, fast dissolving tablets of Eprosartan Melysate were prepared by direct compression method with a view to enhance patient compliance. One super-disintegrants, viz., crospovidone use in different ratios with microcrystalline cellulose along with directly compressible mannitol to enhance mouth feel. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, wetting time, water absorption ratio and&nbsp;<em>in vitro</em>&nbsp;dispersion time. Based on&nbsp;<em>in vitro</em>&nbsp;dispersion time (approximately 13s), nine formulations batches were tested for the&nbsp;<em>in vitro</em>&nbsp;drug release pattern (in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer), short-term stability (at 40°/75% relative humidity for 6 month) and drug-excipient interaction (IR spectroscopy). Among the nine promising formulations, the formulation prepared by using 10% w/w of crospovidone and 35% w/w of microcrystalline cellulose emerged as the overall best formulation (t<sub>50%</sub>&nbsp;1.8 min) based on the&nbsp;<em>in vitro</em>&nbsp;drug release characteristics compared to conventional commercial tablet formulation (t<sub>50%</sub>&nbsp;16.4 min). Short-term stability studies on the formulations indicated that there were no significant changes in drug content and&nbsp;<em>in vitro</em>&nbsp;dispersion time.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp;</strong>Fast dissolving tablets, Eprosartan melysate , Crospovidone, Microcrystaline cellulose</p> S.B. Humane D.N. Shinkar R . B. Saudagar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-06 2018-03-06 7 2 PREVALENCE OF THYROID DYSFUNCTION IN DIABETIC PATIENT <p>The study was undertaken with an objective to know the thyroid functions in Type 2 diabetics and to know the spectrum of thyroid dysfunction in Type 2 DM.100 type 2 diabetic patients were retrospectively investigated who were admitted for the Diabetes Centre in Al ¬Qurayyat Governorate, Al-Jouf, and KSA. Parameters investigated in the study are age, body mass index, fasting bood glucose, post-prandial blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, free triidothyronine (fT3), free thyroxine (fT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH).the diabetic patients studied, 69% had normal thyroid profile (euthyroid) and 31% showed thyroid dysfunction (25% had subclinical hypothyroidism, 3.5% had clinical hypothyroidism, and 2.5% had clinical hyperthyroidism) while no cases of subclinical hyperthyroidism were found.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Prevalence, Diabetes mellitus, Hypothyroidism, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, thyroid disorders.</p> Shivi Saxena ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-06 2018-03-06 7 2 AQUASOMES: An Overview <p>Aquasomes are one of the most recently developed delivery system for bioactive molecules like peptide, protein, hormones, antigens and genes to specific sites. Aquasomes are spherical in shape with 60300 nm particles size. Aquasomes are spherical particles composed of calcium phosphate or ceramic diamond covered with apolyhydroxyloligomeric film and act as nanoparticulate carrier system but instead of being simple nanoparticle these are three layered self-assembled structures, comprised of a solid phase nanocrystalline core coated with oligomeric film on which biochemically active molecules are adsorbed with or without modification. It is widely used for the preparation of implants. Aquasomes exploited as a RBC substitutes, vaccines for delivery of viral antigen and as targeted system for intracellular gene therapy. Enzyme activity and sensitivity towards molecular conformation made aquasome as a novel carrier for enzymes like&nbsp;&nbsp; DNAses and pigment/dyes. This report reviews the principles of self assembly, the challenges of maintaining both the conformational integrity and biochemical activity of immobilized Surface&nbsp; pairs. The delivery system has been successfully utilized for the delivery of insulin, haemoglobin, and enzymes like serratiopeptidase etc.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Priya Gupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-06 2018-03-06 7 2 MODE OF ACTION OF CHANDANADI CHOORN INASRIGDAR : A REVIEW <p><em>Asrigdar</em> characterized by excessive or prolonged menstrual or inter-menstrual bleeding. This condition is distressing and potentially disabling, with this social and work commitments being cancelled. <em>Asrigdar</em> is the common cause of iron deficiency anaemiaand general debility. So many preparations have been mentioned in our texts for the treatment of <em>Asrigdar</em>.In<em>BhaishajyaRatnavali</em>, <em>StriRogadhikara</em> under <em>Pradara Chikitsa</em>66/20-24<em>Chandanadichoorna</em>is described.All the contains of <em>choorna</em> having property are <em>PittakaphaShamaka</em> ,<em>RaktaShodhaka</em> and <em>Stambhaka</em>, <em>Garbhasaya Balya</em> properties which are effective control and cure in the <em>Asrigdar</em>.</p> <p>KEYWORDS: <em>Asrigdar</em>, <em>BhaishajyaRatnawali</em>, <em>Chandanadichoorna</em>.</p> Dr. Susheela Choudhary Dr. Kshiteeja Choudhary Dr. Lovelesh Gupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-06 2018-03-06 7 2 ROLE OF YASTHIMADHU CHURNA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF HYPERACIDITY W.S.R TO AMLAPITTA: A REVIEW STUDY <p>Hyperacidity is a disease of gastrointestinal tract due to abnormal secretion of gastric and pancreatic enzymes. In medical science it is described as Acid Peptic Disorder (APD). In Ayurveda it is described as Amlapitta. It is quite common disease prevailing all over the world.</p> <p>It is due to changing lifestyle along with changing food culture and also depending upon ones body constitution.</p> <p><strong>Key Words: </strong>Amlapitta, Yasthimadhu, Amlaudgar</p> Dr. Suresh Kumar Jat Dr. Shikha Sharma Rashi Tripathi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-06 2018-03-06 7 2 PREVALENCE OF BACTERIAL ISOLATION IN URINE SAMPLES AND THEIR ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY: A REVIEW <p>Urinary tract infections (UTIs) can be complicated if not diagnosed early and treated. Bacteriological analysis of urine samples collection, urine samples were collected and classified and analyzed for urinary tract infection (UTI) using pour plate method. The bacterial organisms isolated from the urine samples were characterized and identified using their colony descriptions, morphological and biochemical characteristics. The isolates were subjected to sensitivity test against conventional antibiotics using disc diffusion method.The presence of bacterial isolates with very high resistance to the commonly prescribed drugs leaves the clinicians with very few alternative options of drugs for the treatment of UTIs. So Culture and sensitivity of the isolates from urine samples should be done as a routine before advocating the therapy.</p> <p><strong><em>KEYWORDS:</em></strong><em> Urinary tract infections, antimicrobial susceptibility<strong>, </strong>E. coli, Broth cultures, Urine analysis.</em></p> Shivi Saxena ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-06 2018-03-06 7 2 PHARMACEUTICO THERAPEUTICS OF SULPHUR (GANDHAKA) AN AYURVEDIC REVIEW <p>The term Sulfur or Sulphur derived From the Sanskrit word "Shulvari"(Shulva + Ari) meaning enemy&nbsp; of shulva or copper metal(Anti-copper). Sulphur occurs free in abundant quantities and hence was probably known to ancients. The Greek and Roman were familiar with the uses of sulphur oxides in fumigation and bleaching.</p> <p>Almost all Acharyas included Gandhaka in Uparasa Varga. Gandhaka seems to be best among all Rasa and Uparasa varga dravya.<sup>1</sup> It is also believed that only Gandhaka is able to form all types of Lauha into Bhasma form.<sup>2</sup> Acharya Shyamsundaracharya praises Gandhaka in a unique way under heading 'Gandhaka Pradhanyam' in his classic.<sup>3</sup></p> <p>As per modern medical science, sulphur regulates the sodium/potassium electrolyte pump within each cell. It also helps in detoxification and is a vital part of immune system. Sulphur is a component of insulin and it functions along with thiamine and biotin in a normal sugar metabolism. It also helps in tissue repair. It has been referred to as 'Nature's beauty mineral' as it keeps hairs, skins, fingernails strong and healthy. It maintains skin's elasticity.</p> <p>Almost all Rasashastra classics have quoted Karma of Gandhaka as Deepana, Pachana, Rasayana, Vrishya, Balya, Aamdoshanashaka, Vishaghna. As per Rasa Ratna Samucchaya, <em>"Gandhashma ati</em> <em>rasayanah"<sup>4</sup></em> and <em>"Haret rogan kustha mrityu jaradikan"</em><sup>5</sup>. Gandhaka Kalpa of Rudrayamala mentions the use of Gandhaka as Rasayana and longevity by its use in 'Kalpakrama'.<sup>6</sup> Daily up to 1 Prastha Gandhaka has been advised in 'Kalpakrama'. Kakachandishwara Kalpa Tantra reveals almost all herbal drug kalpa except one, which is 'Gandhaka Kalpa'. It shows Gandhaka as <em>"Vikhyato jaravyadhivinashakah"</em> and mentions some Gandhaka kalpa for Rasayana purpose also.<sup>7</sup> Shuddha Gandhaka, as per Rasa Ratnakara, Rasayana Khanda, administered as 'Kramana Yoga' along with Godugdha for 'Shrikantha Rasa'<sup>8</sup> and 'Mritasanjivani Gutika'<sup>9</sup>. It indicates that use of Gandhaka as Rasayana had begun in earlier times.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Gandhaka, Sodhana, Gandhanasana, Satwapatana</p> Dr Debasis Panigrahi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-06 2018-03-06 7 2 Critical Analysis of Charakokta Mahakashaya in the Management of Respiratory Allergic Disorders (RAD) <p>As the life becoming more and more mechanical, with rapid raise in industrialization, there will be subsequent increase in Respiratory allergic disorders in childhood clinical practice. Grievance of this problem&nbsp;&nbsp; can be understood by statistical view which shows 5-20% of the pediatric populations are sufferers of Respiratory Allergic Disorders (RAD) as per the latest reports. <em>Acharya charaka </em>mentions a variety of causative factors or&nbsp; <em>Hetus&nbsp; </em>for the same , like&nbsp; house dust, industrial&nbsp; dust, pollens , mites etc ( <em>Rajasa</em> )&nbsp; or chemical&nbsp; gases , fumes, toxic&nbsp; output of industry<em>&nbsp; </em>(<em>Dhooma</em>&nbsp; ,&nbsp; dry food, junk food or&nbsp; stored&nbsp; food&nbsp; (<em>Rukshaanna)</em> and&nbsp;&nbsp; abnormal&nbsp;&nbsp; and&nbsp; irregular food habits (<em>Vishamashan ) . </em>Further depending on severity and specificity of the Hetu and symptoms, same can be classified as <em>Vataja</em> or <em>Vata-Kaphaja</em> variety of <em>Kasa</em>. <em>Kasa </em>&nbsp;which&nbsp; is also&nbsp; a symptoms in many&nbsp; disorders&nbsp; and&nbsp; also a individual disease as per&nbsp; Ayurveda&nbsp; interaction between the&nbsp; environment, diet, immune state of the child , and genetic tendency of certain allergic&nbsp; disorders and familial&nbsp; tendency of&nbsp; atopic&nbsp; disorders will&nbsp; play&nbsp; major role in the manifestation. Moreover respiratory allergies&nbsp;&nbsp; are greatly attributed to hyper responsiveness of respiratory mucosa triggering histamine release and mast cell activation.&nbsp; Same can be understood as aberration of body immune system or Ojus due influence of deranged Vata, Kapha and Pitta in Ayurvedic standard.&nbsp; However Ayurveda stronglyproposes number of drugs which are beneficial in Kasa which acts similar to anti-histaminic or mast cell stabilizing agents.&nbsp;&nbsp; Hence the present paper is focused on <em>Charakokta Mahakashaya </em>to determine the role of <em>Shwashara Mahakashaya</em>, <em>Kasahara Mahakashaya</em>,and <em>Vishaghna Mahakashaya </em>for the effective management of Respiratory Allergic&nbsp; Disorders<em>,&nbsp; </em>with special focus to critical analysis of pharmacological actions based on various experimental and clinical studies of&nbsp; <em>Shwashhar</em>, <em>Kasahar</em>, and <em>Vishaghna mahakashaya </em>.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Dhooma</em>; <em>Kasahar; Rajasa; Rukshaanna ,Shwashar; Vishaghna mahakashaya;</em>; Respiratory allergic disorder</p> Dr. Gupta Lovelesh Dr. Acharya Shrinidhi Kumar Dr. Choudhary Susheela ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-06 2018-03-06 7 2