Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/adminjbpr/nlm.jpg" width="219" height="144">&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><img src="/public/site/images/adminjbpr/ICMJE_newsitem-e1514876485808.jpg" width="233" height="146"></a></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;<a title="|| Pub-Med NLM ID (URL) ||" href="" target="_blank" rel="alternate noopener noreferrer">|| Pub-Med NLM ID (URL) ||</a>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;<a title="" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">&nbsp;||<strong>ICMJE (URL)||</strong></a></p> <p>&nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp; &nbsp;</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><span style="text-align: justify;">Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research (JBPR) is an international, peer-reviewed, open access, online journal dedicated to the rapid publication of full-length original research papers, short communications, invited reviews, Case studies and editorial commentary and news, Opinions &amp; Perspectives and Book Reviews written at the invitation of the Editor in all areas of the Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences.</span></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Medical || Dentistry || Biomedical Sciences&nbsp;|| Ayurveda&nbsp;|| Homeopathy&nbsp;||&nbsp;</strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Anatomy, Physiology, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, Cell biology, Genetics, Hematology, Pathology, Immunology, Microbiology, Virology, Parasitology, Surgery, Dental Sciences, Sports Physiology,&nbsp;Histopathology, Toxicology and all major disciplines of Biomedical Sciences.<br> <strong>Pharmaceutical Sciences || Allied Sciences&nbsp;</strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Pharmaceutics, Biopharmaceutics, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmaceutical/Medicinal Chemistry, Computational Chemistry and Molecular Drug Design, Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Pharmacology and Toxicology, Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, Clinical Research, Pharmacy Practice, Clinical and Hospital Pharmacy, Cell Biology, Genomics and Proteomics, Pharmacogenomics, Bioinformatics and Biotechnology and all major disciplines of Pharmaceutical&nbsp; Sciences.</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Articles are published as they are accepted and are freely available on the journal’s website to facilitate rapid and broad dissemination of research findings to a global audience.</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Top Reasons for publication with us</strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Quick Quality Review:</strong> The journal has strong international team of editors and reviewers, Rapid Decision and Publication</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Very Low Publication Fees:</strong> Comparable journals charge a huge sum for each accepted manuscript. JPBR only charge the fees necessary to recoup cost associated with running the journal</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Other features:</strong> DIDS Assigned and Implemented the Open Review System (ORS).</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong>Important Notice:</strong></span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Author can now directly send their manuscript as an email attachment to</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;">Innovative Library</span></span></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: lucida sans unicode,lucida grande,sans-serif;"><span style="font-size: 14px;"><strong></strong>, <strong></strong></span></span></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Innovative Library en-US Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research 2589-8752 <p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons License" width="60" height="21" border="0"></a><span style="line-height: 1.3em;">Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research&nbsp;</span><span style="line-height: 1.3em;">by </span><span style="line-height: 1.3em;">Articles</span><span style="line-height: 1.3em;"> is licensed under a </span><a style="line-height: 1.3em;" title="Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Research" href="" target="_blank" rel="license noopener">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a><span style="line-height: 1.3em;">.</span></p> FORMULATION DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF LIPOSOME FOR TOPICAL DELIVERY <p>and side effects. So the objective of the present research work is to reduce the side effects, Topical administration of drug is better for local action and the efficiency of the topically administered drug is increased with vesicles like Liposomes. Liposomes were prepared by rotator evaporation method and optimized on the basis of average vesicle size, % drug entrapment and polydispersity index. The optimized formulation was further encorpoated with gel base (carbapol gel) and characterized for their viscosity, extrudability, spreadability and drug release study. The NSAIDs is mainly used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Sulfasalazine is non steroidal anti inflammatory drug with analgesic, antipyretic and anti inflammatory activity and it is commonly used in the treatment of acute mild to moderate pain, as well as inflammation of the joints caused by certain type of rheumatoid arthritis. The sulfasalazine drug has less bioavailability(10-30%), more dose frequency dose frequency, increase the bioavailability and&nbsp; therapheutic efficacy. &nbsp;So sulfasalazine is chosen for development of liposome preparation.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Liposomes, rheumatoid arthritis, sulfasalazine</p> Rakesh Tiwari Mithun Bhowmick Jagdish Rathi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 8 1 10.32553/jbpr.v7i6.564 EVALUATION OF ANTI-DIABETIC ACTIVITY OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA ROOT EXTRACT IN ALLOXAN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS <p>The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of root extract&nbsp; of Terminalia arjuna on blood glucose level of normal and diabetic rats was evaluated in this study. Physicochemical investigations were performed on the acetone extract of Terminalia arjuna (roots). 15-day treatment of extracts associated with reduced the elevated levels of TC, TG as compared to negative control in diabetic animals. The data obtained from this study showed that the treatment of extracts and glibenclamide protects the diabetic rats from massive body weight loss, when given orally, daily for 15 days. Evaluation of anti-diabetic activity of terminalia arjuna showed that the root extract of Terminalia <em>arjuna </em>have potent antidiabetic effects in alloxan-induced diabetic rats.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Terminalia arjuna, root extract, glibenclamide, alloxan</p> Shikha Singh Neeru Shukla Mithun Bhowmick Jagdish Rathi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-07 2019-01-07 8 1 10.32553/jbpr.v8i1.566 1,8-cineol attenuated Aβ25-35-induced neuron injury through inhibiting IL-6, IL-8 release and NF-κB expression <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To explore the protective effect of 1,8-cineol against Amyloid beta<sub>25-35</sub> ( Aβ<sub>25-35</sub>)-induced cell injury in primary rat cortical neurons.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Primary rat cortical neurons were cultured <em>in vitro</em>, treated with different concentrations of Aβ<sub>25-35</sub> (2.5, 5, 10 20, 40 μM) and 1,8-cineol (1, 3, 10 μM). Cell viability of neuronal cells were detected by MTT assay and cell death were detected by lactate dehydrogenase release (LDH). The production of IL-6 and IL-8 in the supernatant were measured by ELISA assay kits. NF-κB protein expression was detected by Western blotting.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>In primary cultured neurons, Aβ<sub>25-35</sub> concentration dependently reduced cell viability and increased LDH release. 1,8-cineol with concentrations of 3 and 10 μM protected neuronal cells against Aβ<sub>25-35</sub> induced cell injury for 24 h. 3 and 10 μM of 1,8-cineol also significantly decreased the levels of IL-6 and IL-8 cytokine production in the supernatant. Increased NF-κB expression was also significantly reduced by 1,8-cineol treatment evaluated by Western blotting.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> Our results revealed a protective effect of 1,8-cineol on Aβ<sub>25-35</sub> induced neuron injury through inhibition of IL-6, IL-8 production and NF-κB expression.</p> Changliang Lu Lin Wang Shumei Wang Wanzhong Li Haijian Li Lin Sun Wenzhen Shi Chunzhen Zhao ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-06 2019-02-06 8 1 10.32553/jbpr.v8i1.567 FUNCTIONAL ROLES OF LIPID METABOLITE CDP DIACYLGLYCEROL AND ITS SYNTHASE ENZYMES: RECENT DEVELOPMENTS <p>Phospholipids are basic building-block molecules for biological membranes. Biosynthesis of phospholipids i.e phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylserine requires a central liponucleotide intermediate named cytidine-diphosphate diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG). The CDP-DAG synthase (CDS) is an integral membrane enzyme catalysing the formation of CDP-DAG, an essential step for phosphoinositide recycling during signal transduction. New roles are being ascribed to the CDP-DAG in signalling and pathophysiological conditions. This pathway may also be the target of novel drugs to be used in neuro-psychiatric conditions.</p> <p><strong>Key words: </strong>Phospholipids, Cytidine diphosphate, diacylglycerol, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidylglycerol.</p> Manoj G Tyagi Dharmendra Singh Nirmala Joyce Mohammed Amil Shyam S Yadav ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-10 2019-02-10 8 1 10.32553/jbpr.v8i1.572 COMMON HEALTH PROBLEMS IN GERIATRIC PATIENTS: A CROSS-SECTIONAL HOSPITAL BASED STUDY <p><strong>Background</strong>: The health problems of elderly are often nonspecific and the pattern of disease keeps changing. Therefore, it is essential to know the burden of disease especially in developing countries so that policy could be made to overcome the morbidity associated with it. The present study was done to identify the geriatric health problems in Geriatric patients coming to Geriatric clinic in a tertiary care centre.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A hospital based cross-sectional study was carried in Geriatric clinic with patients aged over 60 years in 100 patients. Basic demographic data and clinical history was taken by physician. Categorical variables were summarized by percentages. Associations were explored with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Out of 100 patients 61 were males and 39 were females. Visual impairment was the most common handicap with prevalence of 89%, with males more affected than females. Weight loss was there in 47% of patients. Forty two percent has depression and 41% has arthritis. Apart from these uncorrected hearing impairment was present in 46% of patients. Urinary complaints were more common in males.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: It was found that elderly population has all kind of ailments so a multidispliniary approach should be there in every Geriatric Clinic so that each co-morbid condition can be taken care off.</p> Anup Singh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-13 2019-02-13 8 1 10.32553/jbpr.v8i1.574 SOLUBILITY ENHANCEMENT OF POORLY WATER SOLUBLE DRUGS BY VARIOUS TECHNIQUES <p>Solubility is not the ability to dissolve or thaw a substance; it may happen not only due to dissolution but also because of a chemical reaction. Solubility is the phenomenon of dissolution of solid in liquid phase to provide a homogenous system<strong>. </strong>Solubility is one of the vital factors for accomplishing desired concentration of drug in systemic circulation for pharmacological response. Low aqueous solubility is the major problem seen with formulation development of new chemical entities as well as for the generic development. With all new discovered chemical entities about 40% drugs are lipophilic and doesn’t shown therapeutic range due to their poor water solubility. Drug with poor water solubility shows slow dissolution rates, incomplete absorption and low bioavailability when taken orally. Drug solubility and bioavailability enhancement are the important in the formulation of pharmaceuticals. The Biopharmaceutics Classification System shows that Class II and IV drugs have low water solubility, poor dissolution, and low bioavailability. This review mentions different approaches used for the enhancement of the solubility of poorly water-soluble drugs that includes particle size reduction, pH adjustment, and solid dispersion. This describes the techniques of solubilizaton for the attainment of effective absorption and improved bioavailability.</p> <p>Keywords: Solubility, BCS classification, Bioavailability, Solid-dispersion.</p> Sakshi Minocha Dr. Shilpa Pahwa Dr. Vandana Arora ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-07 2019-01-07 8 1 10.32553/jbpr.v8i1.565 - EMERGENCE OF NIPAH VIRUS: A REVIEW <p>An emerging zoonotic infection caused by Nipah virus has become a Biosafety Level-4 pathogen capable of causing infection in animals and man. Bats belonging to <em>Pteropodidae</em> family, genus <em>Pteropus</em> which constitute fruit bats are the host reservoirs. Genus Eidolon constituting nonpteropid bats were later found to contain the virus. Genetic and molecular similarities between Nipah and Hendra viruses helped their classification into a new genus of Henipavirus.The first reported outbreak of Nipah disease from Malaysia took place in 1998.Two genetic strains of Nipah have been identified in Asia which are of severe and less severe forms. Surveillance should be upgraded and more research focussing on Nipah were envisaged in the blueprint published by WHO.</p> Rama - Adiga ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-21 2019-02-21 8 1 10.32553/jbpr.v8i1.576 A REVIEW ON APPLICATIONS OF PROBIOTICS IN HUMAN HEALTH AND DISEASE <p><em>The emergence of resistance and tolerance to the existing drugs has created a decreased efficacy of these drugs in use. Along with the advancement in other fields of medicine, the problem of resistance has been tried to be overcome by increasing the drug delivery to the target site by the use of polymers or through nanotechnology, synthesis of new drugs, either by the use of proteomics or synthesis from lactic acid bacteria, or marine microorganisms. Recent research has revealed a potential therapeutic role for the manipulation of the microbiota in the maintenance of human health and treatment of various mucosal disorders. Probiotic microorganisms can shape the immune system both at the local and systemic level which will allow future probiotics as treatments for many diseases. The benefits include either a shortened duration of infections or decreased susceptibility to pathogens.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Probiotic bacteria have multiple and various influences onthe host. Different organisms can influence the intestinal luminal environment, epithelial and mucosal barrier function, and the mucosal immune system. The numerous cell types affected by probiotics involve epithelial cells, dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, B cells, T cells. Probiotics do not always colonize the intestinal tract to exert their effects. Some probiotics like Bifidobacterium longum become part of the human intestinal microflora, whereas others like Lactobacillus casei indirectly exert their effects in a transient manner as they pass through by remodeling or influencing the existing microbial community.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> <p><em>Probiotics seem to have promising role in shortening duration of infections or decreasing susceptibility to the pathogens. Incorporation of probiotics in nutrition as a means of derivation of health benefits. The best documented effects include bowel disorders such as lactose intolerance, antibiotic-associated diarrhea and infectious diarrhea, emerging evidence accumulates concerning their potential role in various other conditions. In the same time as relevant consumer awareness grows, such products are becoming increasingly popular and tend to represent one of the largest functional food markets.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Key words: </em></strong><em>probiotics, Antibiotic associated diarrhea, microorganisms, Antibiotic resistance, Lactic acid bacteria.</em></p> Yasaman Pakdaman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-21 2019-02-21 8 1 10.32553/jbpr.v8i1.578 OVERVIEW OF MALARIA PARASITE AND ITS PREVENTION IN INDIA <p><strong>Background:</strong> Malaria is a systematic disease caused by a parasite called Plasmodium which is transmitted into the human blood via female Anopheles mosquito. Malaria in humans is caused by four species of protozoan parasites of the genus&nbsp;<em>Plasmodium: P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale</em>, and&nbsp;<em>P. malariae</em>. The parasite enters the human body through a mosquito bite and travel to the very crucial organ, the liver, where they multiply and come back to the bloodstream and destroy red blood cells. Malaria causes&nbsp;symptoms&nbsp;that typically include&nbsp;fever,&nbsp;tiredness,&nbsp;vomiting, and&nbsp;headaches. In severe cases it can cause&nbsp;yellow skin,&nbsp;seizures,&nbsp;coma, or&nbsp;death.&nbsp;Symptoms usually begin ten to fifteen days after being bitten by an infected&nbsp;mosquito.&nbsp;In those who have recently survived an&nbsp;infection, reinfection usually causes milder symptoms.</p> <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>Isolation of different species of malaria parasites. The prevalence of malaria parasite in India.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The procedure follows these steps: collection of peripheral blood, staining of smear with Leishman’s stain and examination of red blood cells for malaria parasites under the microscope.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>We observed the plasmodium species in peripheral blood smear.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Worldwide, the number of cases of malaria caused by&nbsp;Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous species of the parasite, is on the rise.</p> Adil Raza Megha Chaudhary Sonika Devi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-02-22 2019-02-22 8 1 10.32553/jbpr.v8i1.575 CASE STUDY OF SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION IN JMC, JHALAWAR. <p>Only one group was investigated for serum lipid profile in third trimester of pregnancy in which included all PIH patients admitted in labor room in Department of Obstetrics in Jhalawar Medical College and was substantially compared with the normal values of Lipids in women. In this study we investigate the role of lipid profile in PIH. LDL value increase, HDL value decrease, TG value increase and VLDL value increase in PIH patients and also TG : HDL ration increased significantly in PIH patients. Dyslipidemia mediated activation of endothelial cells to placentally derived endothelial disturbing factors like lipid peroxides and trophoblastic components as possible contributors for pathogenesis of PIH. Thus assessment of blood lipids may be helpful in preventions of complications in PIH.</p> <p><strong>Key Words:</strong> Bloodlipids, PIH, Dyslipidemia, Triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotiens, High Density Lipoprotiens.</p> Dr. Nanu Ram Jat Dr. Ritu Gupta Dr. Ayushi Gupta ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-05 2019-01-05 8 1 10.32553/jbpr.v8i1.571